In Ukraine, advocates (as against other lawyers) are given fully fledged guarantees as to communications with clients being confidential.

According to Article 22 of the Law of Ukraine On Advocacy, advocate secrecy (also know as attorney-client privilege) is any information which has become known to an advocate about a client*, as well as issues the client has approached with, content of advices, consultations, explanations, documents composed, information being stored electronically, and other documents and data which have been acquired as part of advocacy.

Information may cease to be privileged following a client’s* instruction in written. Alongside with that, information received from third parties and containing data about them, can be distributed with due consideration ofpersonal data protection legislation requirements.

An obligation as to keeping advocate secrecy covers not just an advocate but his or her assistant, intern, and employees of an advocate, an advocate bureau, a law firm, as well as persons whose right to advocacy has been suspended or terminated. An advocate is obliged to secure conditions for access of third parties to privileged information and its disclosure to be not possible.

Those guilty of third parties’ unauthorised access to advocate secrecy and its disclosure are to be liable under the law.

* — Besides a client, such a legal regime additionally covers persons who approached an advocate buthave not concluded legal services agreements with